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What Is Artificial Intelligence: Types, History, And Future

The evolving world of technology is focused on advanced betterment and constant change. With every turning point comes out a new technology that aims to upgrade and facilitate the human lifestyle by easing our task performance. This article will target one such technological advancement known as Artificial Intelligence. If you have landed on this article, then that means either you are a tech enthusiast or a beginner curious to get more information. Without further delay, let’s start with the article, which will focus on questions like what is artificial intelligence. What are its types and benefits? As well as what does the future of AI look like and a lot more.

What Is Artificial Intelligence (AI)?

Before digging deep into the topics of this article, it is necessary and crucial to understand what artificial intelligence is. By definition, AI is known as a computerized program that is developed to function as a human being. In simpler terms, AI is programmed to perform tasks that human brains can carry out. For instance, AI is an umbrella term for various programs that will easily carry out complex tasks like image recognition, data analysis, making important decisions, etc.

What Is The History Of Artificial Intelligence (AI)?

There is a misconception regarding the invention of AI that it is a newly developed tech advancement. Though, this is not the case. In the first section of the article, we will review a detailed historical background of Artificial Intelligence (AI).

  • The Pre-Developmental Era Of AI.
  • The Emergence Of AI.
  • The Time Of Maturation And Betterment.
  • The Period Of AI Boom.
  • AI Winter.
  • Development Of AI Agents.
  • The Current Position Of AI.

1. The Pre-Developmental Era Of AI

The pre-developmental era of AI dates back to the early 1900s. This was the time around 1900-1950 when the word artificial intelligence did not exist anywhere, but the media did draw a lot of attention to the concept of artificial humans. At that time, scientists and researchers got serious and started to question if it was actually possible to build an artificial human brain. The only possibility that was seen during this time was in a play Czech play named ‘Rossum’s Universal Robot’ It was the first play in which people got familiar with the term ‘robot’ and the idea of an artificial human. After that, in 1929,  an actual robot was built by a Japanese Professor, Makoto Nishimura.

2. The Emergence Of AI

The emergence of the name and concept of artificial intelligence took birth during the 1950 – 1956 timeline. It was during this period that Alan Turing published a book called ‘Computer Machinery And Intelligence.’ The book proposed a test called the Turing test, through which it was possible to measure computer intelligence. In 1952, Arthur Samuel invented a program to play the checkers. It was the first time that a computer was programmed to play a game independently. 

It’s important to note that till this time period, the term AI was not introduced. John McCarthy launched the concept and term of artificial intelligence in 1955 by conducting a workshop by the same name. 

3. The Time Of Maturation And Betterment

AI faced a period of maturation from 1957-1979. During this time, AI research had a period of growth and difficulty. Artificial intelligence (AI) swiftly entered the mainstream, as evidenced by anything from programming languages that are still in use today to literature and movies that explore the concept of robots. Some of the first examples of AI include the development of the first anthropomorphic robot created in Japan in the 1970s and the first autonomous car. However, the government of the USA showed little interest in continuing to support AI research. Therefore, it was a difficult moment for the field.

Some important milestones during this time period included:

  • The invention of LISP, the first programming language in AI research, in 1958. 
  • The term ‘machine learning’ was coined in 1959. 
  • The invention of the first ‘expert system’ in 1965. 
  • In 1966, the first chatterbot was created by Joseph Weizenbaum, which used NLP.
  • One of the earliest instances of an autonomous vehicle was developed in 1961 by James L. Adams. It was able to go across a room full of chairs without assistance in 1979. 
  • In the same year, The Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) was created, proving to be a successor organization to the American Association of Artificial Intelligence.

4. The Period Of AI Boom

After the period of maturation of AI came the period which is known as the AI boom. The period started in 1980 and lasted till 1987. This time period witnessed nothing but growth and progress in the field of research and support from the government in terms of funding for research purposes. Some important events of the AI boom are 

  • In 1980, Stanford hosted the AAAI’s inaugural conference.
  • The first expert system, known as the XCON, was developed and was into entered the commercial market.
  • In 1985, the AAAI conference also introduced an autonomous drawing program known as AARON. 
  • 1986 saw the creation and debut of the first autonomous automobile (also known as a robot car) by Ernst Dickmann and his colleagues at the Bundeswehr University of Munich.
  • It became more common to employ Deep Learning methods and Expert Systems during this time period. Both of these systems are known to let computers learn from their errors and come to their own conclusions.

5. AI Winter 

The time period of 1987-1993 is known as the AI Winter. This time period marks a phase of slow progress for AI as there was little consumer, public, or commercial interest in the field. This, in return, resulted in less financing for research and, ultimately, fewer discoveries. Due to the lackings of certain launches of AI, the government and private investors both stopped their funding and did not show any sort of interest in the research. 

6. Development Of AI Agents 

The early 1990s saw some notable advancements in AI research despite the lack of funding during the AI Winter. This period is known to bring AI into everyday life. Some of the developments and launches in this time frame include:

  • In 1997, IBM’s Deep Blue was invented, which is known as the first computer program to defeat a human chess champion.
  • In the same year, speech recognition software (created by Dragon Systems) was made available by Windows.
  • In the year 2000, Professor Cynthia Breazeal created the first robot with a face that had eyes, brows, ears, and a mouth and could mimic human emotions. It even has a name called Kismet. 
  • The initial Roomba was introduced in 2002.
  • Beginning in 2006, businesses like Twitter, Facebook, and Netflix began integrating AI into their user experience (UX) and advertising algorithms.
  • 2010 saw the release of Microsoft’s Xbox 360 Kinect. It was the first gaming device to monitor body movement and convert it into in-game directions.
  • In 2011, Watson, an IBM-created NLP computer, was used that could answer questions. It also defeated two previous winners.
  • In the same year, Apple introduced Siri, which is known as the first well-known virtual assistant.

7. The Current Position Of AI

From 2012 till the current time, the field of AI has been busy launching new inventions and making progress in the field. Some of the important milestones achieved by experts are

  • In 2012, two Google researchers taught a neural network to recognize cats by exposing it to only unlabeled photos and no contextual cues.
  • The signing of an open letter banning the development and usage of autonomous weaponry for military purposes took place in 2015
  • A humanoid robot named Sophia was developed by Hanson Robotics in 2016. It is regarded as the first “robot citizen” with a convincing human look. It also has the capacity to perceive and mimic emotions and the ability to interact.
  • Facebook designed two AI chatbots to communicate in 2017.
  • In the following year, a language-processing AI developed by the Chinese internet company Alibaba outperformed human intelligence in a Stanford reading and comprehension test.
  • 2020 witnessed the launch of GPT-3, a model that combines deep learning to produce code, poetry, and other language- and writing-related tasks.
  • OpenAI created DALL-E in 2021. DALL-E can analyze and comprehend pictures sufficiently to provide correct captions.

In the upcoming years, the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) has only advanced by introducing new and upgraded programs that focus on facilitating human life and industries. 

What Are The Types Of Artificial Intelligence (AI)?

As mentioned above, AI is an umbrella term that includes certain types as well as branches. In this section, we will review seven types of AI divided into two broader domains known as:

  • Artificial Intelligence Based On Capabilities.
  • Artificial Intelligence Based On Functionalities.

1. Artificial Intelligence Based On Capabilities

The first division is known as AI based on capabilities. This includes three types which we will discuss in detail. Their names are

  • Narrow Artificial Intelligence.
  • General Artificial Intelligence.
  • Super Artificial Intelligence.

What Is Narrow AI?

As the name suggests, narrow AI is defined as the type of AI program which is trained to perform a limited range of tasks or showcase limited cognitive abilities. This kind of AI is also known as weak AI, as it is designed to focus on a single task and can not perform beyond its limitations. Some examples of narrow AI are Apple Siri, Google Translate, image recognition software, etc. 

What Is General AI?

General AI is also known as Strong AI. It is capable of understanding and learning every cognitive task that a person is capable of. It allows a machine to use its knowledge and abilities in various situations. Strong AI hasn’t been accomplished yet by AI researchers, but it is possible to have it launched in the near time.

What Is Super AI?

Super AI is the most skilled form of AI based on capabilities. It has intelligence above human limits and is capable of handling any work better than a person. In the theory of artificial superintelligence, AI has progressed to the point where it is so similar to human emotions and experiences that it not only understands human feelings and experiences but also evokes its own emotions, wants, beliefs, and goals. Thinking, puzzle-solving, independent judgment, and decision-making are some of the crucial traits of super AI. Its existence is currently hypothetical. 

2. Artificial Intelligence Based On Functionalities

We will now review four types of Artificial Intelligence (AI) based on functionalities. 

  • Reactive Machines.
  • Limited Memory.
  • Theory of Mind.
  • Self-awareness.

What Is Reactive Machine?

Reactive machines are known as AI-enabled machines that focus on reacting to the present data and performing tasks. This type of AI is unable to make use of past experiences and memories or deal with tasks beyond their specifications. They deal with a limited set of data which is presented then and there only.  

What Is Limited Memory?

Another type of AI is known as Limited Memory AI, which is programmed to learn to and make judgments using past data. A unique feature of limited memory is that such systems have temporary memory. They are allowed to utilize this historical information for a limited time but are unable to add it to a library of their experiences. 

What Is Theory Of Mind?

This type of AI is a cutting-edge class of technology that only exists as a mere concept. Theory of mind requires AI to have a deep understanding of how the people and objects in an environment may change feelings and behaviors. Not only that, but it should also be able to comprehend the feelings, opinions, and thoughts of others. Even though this sector has witnessed essential advancements, this particular AI is still under development.

What Is Self-Awareness?

Lastly, self-awareness is yet another type of AI based on functionalities. The concept is hypothetical but is included in the types of AI. the systems of self-awareness are able to detect human emotions and comprehend their internal characteristics, circumstances, and moods. It is predicted that such devices will be more intelligent than the human brain. Not only will these devices be able to recognize and elicit emotions in individuals with whom it interacts, but they will also possess emotions, wants, and beliefs of their own.

What Are The Branches Of AI?

Since we have reviewed the types of AI, we will now be discussing the branches of AI that are currently being utilized in different fields and sectors. Some of them are:

  • Machine Learning (ML).
  • Deep Learning (DL).
  • Natural Language Processing (NLP).
  • Robotics.
  • Expert Systems.
  • Fuzzy Logic.
  • Computer Vision.
  • Cognitive Computing.
  • Data Mining.

1. Machine Learning (ML)

Machine Learning is one of the prominent branches of AI. This field enables devices to carry out important tasks like problem-solving and decision-making without the need for prior programming. It utilizes data to recognize patterns and make inferences. ML is divided into three sub-branches known as supervised learning, unsupervised learning, and reinforcement learning. 

2. Deep Learning (DL)

Deep Learning is another branch of AI that makes use of neural networks to learn and predict the future. Another unique factor about deep learning is that it has the ability to store large data sets, which helps in recognizing patterns and performing various tasks without the need for explicit programming. Though the data storing part of DL might take plenty of time and effort, it still has enormous benefits when it comes to handling heavy amounts of data.

3. Natural Language Processing (NLP)

As the name suggests, NLP is the branch of AI that enables computers to process, understand, and chat with us in our own language. These algorithms are utilized by different chatbots, virtual assistants, and other areas where communication is an essential requirement.

4. Robotics

Robotics is one of the advancing branches of AI, which is a mixture of AI and engineering. The main focus in this field is developing functional robots which have the ability to process, learn, think, and carry out important tasks like human beings. 

5. Expert Systems

An expert system is known as a computerized system that assists human beings in taking important decisions regarding different fields and areas. It is important to note that this system has yet to be developed to replace human beings. Instead, it only focuses n helping individuals who have expertise in a certain field. ES is composed of three main components known as user interface, inference engine, and knowledge base. 

6. Fuzzy Logic

Another helpful branch of AI, known as fuzzy logic, is designed to help human beings by utilizing AI algorithms in dealing with situations or statements that are either true or false. 

7. Computer Vision

This field of AI enables computer devices to learn and make important understandings related to the surroundings utilizing visual data. These systems help computers in analyzing images and videos to make inferences, spot differences, and identify objects, faces, or even places, etc. It includes the important procedures of object detection, image segmentation, and video classification. 

8. Cognitive Computing

Cognitive computing is one of the fields of AI that is making waves in the tech industries and other industries that are interested in utilizing it. Such kinds of AI algorithms are focused on training computer devices to act in a way that would feel like interacting with a human being rather than a machine. These systems train a computer to understand, learn, think, and react in a way that a human brain would.

9. Data Mining

Last but not least, data mining is another branch of AI that is focused on organizing and analyzing large sets of data. It helps industries and individuals identify patterns and recognize user behavior, strengths, and weaknesses in the data set. It facilitates the process of decision-making.

Advantage And Disadvantage Of Artificial Intelligence

Just like any other technological advancement, AI has its own share of disadvantages and advantages, which we will discuss in this section of the article. 

Advantages Of Artificial Intelligence (AI)?

  • AI helps in reducing human errors as it works on a predetermined set of data and information.
  • AI systems are available 24/7, which assures the access and availability of these machines at all times.
  • With the passing of time, the field of AI has only focused on launching new inventions focusing on increasing the Applications of AI in different areas. 
  • Unlike human behavior, AI-enabled machines eliminate the chances of risk and errors by saving energy and effort. 
  • AI chatbots and virtual assistants are as unique and helpful tool for improving customer services and increasing user engagement. 
  • AI robots and machines have the advantage of performing and providing digital assistance to individuals in various fields. 
  • This tech advancement aims to save valuable time for human beings by performing repetitive jobs. 
  • The workings of AI technology are unbiased as it does not include any sort of emotions or empathy in it. 
  • Artificial Intelligence (AI) helps in organizing and analyzing data in a much more effective and efficient way. 

Disadvantages Of Artificial Intelligence (AI)?

  • AI is known to be an expensive source of technology as compared to other advancements and facilities.
  • Since AI systems are fed with data to perform tasks, it leaves no room for creativity and innovation. 
  • Some of the AI systems have also led to unemployment, causing distress to human beings.
  • The field of AI requires constant improvements, or else it will be outdated in no time like other technological developments.
  • AI has been reported to become an increasing source of producing laziness in human beings as it takes over performing tasks on their behalf. 

What Is The Future Of AI?

After analyzing the types and branches of AI, it is important to review the future of AI. in the upcoming section of the article; we will discuss some of the industries that are being benefited by the Application of AI and will continue to do so. 

  • The Healthcare Industry.
  • The Transport Industry.
  • The Education Industry.
  • The Manufacturing Industry.
  • The Customer Care And Services Sector. 
  • The Cybersecurity Industry.
  • AI In Marketing And Advertisement.
  • Military Sector.

The Healthcare Industry

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is already being utilized in many fields of medicine and healthcare. It focuses on changing how people interact with medical professionals. AI algorithms have the ability to analyze large amounts of data, detect illnesses more quickly and precisely, discover helpful drugs and medicines, and speed up the medication research process. The field of robotics is facilitating the area of surgery by carrying out surgical procedures and monitoring patients using virtual nursing aides.

The Transport Industry

One sector that is being immensely benefited by AI is the transportation industry. AI will have an impact on many aspects of how we commute in the near future, including self-driving automobiles and trip planners. Another important advancement though not yet achieved is predicted to be driverless cars.

The Education Industry

Next in line is the education industry, which is widely utilizing AI and is predicted to continue the use of AI for teaching and learning purposes. With the help of Artificial intelligence (AI), the industry will be able to use machine learning, natural language processing, and face recognition to digitize textbooks, identify plagiarism, and monitor student moods. It will also open doors for personalized learning experiences in the future.

The Manufacturing Industry

AI has proven to benefit the manufacturing industry for years. AI technologies are constantly engaged in assisting and helping human beings with carrying out tasks like data management, decision-making, maintaining security, and problem-solving. 

The Customer Care And Services Sector 

With the invention of chatbots and different virtual assistants, AI is known to provide DevOps team AI advantages to the customer care and services sector of the industry. This feature of AI focuses on improving communication with users by providing relevant information and responding whenever the need is required. 

Military Sector

AI in the military sector is known to increase the Applications of AI in different areas. With the help of these algorithms, it is now easier to keep track of alarming movements, increased production of weapons, and improved security systems. 

The Cybersecurity Industry

Data recording and protection are the two biggest concerns when it comes to managing industries and businesses. Be it the data of users or important data records of the company. With the help of AI algorithms and systems, companies are now improving their ways of securing data and implementing new ways of cybersecurity policies. It makes it almost impossible for hackers to attain data through illegal means.

AI In Marketing And Advertisement 

As mentioned above, Artificial Intelligence (AI) is known to provide services in data analysis. This, in return, helps the marketing and advertising industry to excel and improve their production as well as performance. With the help of data insights, companies can easily identify user behavior and focus on the lackings in a marketing campaign to launch better advertisements and services. 

Wrapping Up

As far as all the information is concerned in this article, a question always pops into the mind, and that is, is AI beneficial or dangerous to use? The answer depends on the extent to which you rely on the technology. In a fast-moving world, it is necessary for people to stay connected to technological trends in order to make the most out of them. Still, at the same time, it is essential to maintain control and recognize sensitive points. 

AI is for sure aiming to benefit as many industries as it can with its inventions. In such times, reliable digital solution companies provide the best possible digital solutions available in the market to clients for effective developmental procedures.

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